Triggering and relieving factors of migraine among university students: A cross-sectional study in Lebanon




Migraine, University students, Headache, Triggers, Relieving factors



Migraine is common among university students and can directly affect their daily activities and learning since students with migraine have difficulties attending classes and missed more school days than other students.


This study aimed to identify triggering factors of migraine along with factors that relieve headaches associated with migraine episodes among university students.


An observational cross-sectional study targeted students from different faculties of the public university campus in Lebanon using a survey for data collection.


Feeling hungry (65.9%), fasting (50.7%), and coffee deprivation (22.7%) were the most commonly reported dietary factors inducing headaches among university students. In comparison, climate changes (77.1%), noise and high volumes (73.9%), and hot weather (60.2%) were the most common environmental triggers. Among the psychological factors, anxiety (53.4%) and crying (47.3%) were highly reported and were significantly higher among women. Fatigue (63.2%), studying for exams (59.5%), and neck pain (46.8%) were the most common physical activity-reported factors. Lack of sleep (72%) and changes in sleeping hours (42.7%) were the primarily reported sleeping habits that can trigger headaches, with no statistically significant differences between men and women.  Sleeping (66.3%), relaxing (53.4%), avoiding migraine’s trigger factors (42.9%), and having a warm bath (38.5%) were the most reported relieving factors of headache among students. No statistically significant association was noted between any of the factors and the sex of the participants.


The triggering and relieving factors of migraine were comparable between men and women. Some triggering factors such as crying, anxiety, and fatigue were found significant among women, while driving was a higher migraine trigger among men. Lifestyle interventions may provide clues on effective relieving strategies and yield the establishment of different medical services and university programs.


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How to Cite

Mosleh R, Hatem G, Navasardyan N, Ajrouche R, Zein S, Awada S. Triggering and relieving factors of migraine among university students: A cross-sectional study in Lebanon. Headache Med [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 28 [cited 2024 Mar. 2];13(4):257-64. Available from:




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